Its exponents denounced all negative propositions and all complex and abstruse theories, declaring that only affirmative and simple doctrines could be true. He was usually described as plain to the point of ugly, with a long nose, misshapen mouth and wild neck-beard, and with "uncouth and rustic, though courteous" manners.
Cartesianism the philosophy of Descartes first eliminates all things and then replaces as fundamental those premises without which existence is impossible. Opposing the Pelasgian doctrine that man is the author of his own salvation, Augustinianism elevated the church and its dogmas to a position of absolute infallibility--a position which it successfully maintained until the Reformation.
After the time of Menedemus the Elean sect became known as the Eretrian. Emerson refuted evil, insisting it was not an entity in itself, but simply the absence of good.
O searcher--out of virtue and expeller of vices! Though capable of filling space, if reduced to its ultimate state it consists of incomprehensibly minute units of divine energy occupying no physical space whatsoever.
His father was John Thoreau, the owner of a pencil factory in Concord; his mother was Cynthia Dunbar her father, Asa Dunbar, was known for leading Harvard's "Butter Rebellion", the first recorded student protest in the United States.
Despite the antagonism, however, between pristine Christianity and Neo-Platonism many basic tenets of the latter were accepted by the former and woven into the fabric of Patristic philosophy.
Hegel elevated logic to a position of supreme importance, in fact as a quality of the Absolute itself. It is only from such real individuals that true community can form.
Intuition allowed the transcendentalist to disregard external authority and to rely, instead, on direct experience. All on earth have the divine "spark" within and thus all are part of the whole. According to Plato, the One is the term most suitable for defining the Absolute, since the whole precedes the parts and diversity is dependent on unity, but unity not on diversity.
In an effort to set forth in an appropriate figure the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, it was necessary to devise an image in which the three persons--Father, Son, and Holy Ghost--were separate and yet one.
Being asked what he gained by a life of philosophy, Antisthenes replied that he had learned how to converse with himself. Eclecticism can scarcely be considered philosophically or logically sound, for as individual schools arrive at their conclusions by different methods of reasoning, so the philosophic product of fragments from these schools must necessarily be built upon the foundation of conflicting premises.
Pythagoreanism may be summarized as a system of metaphysical speculation concerning the relationships between numbers and the causal agencies of existence. Defending himself with the shield of skepticism alike from the illusions of the senses and the cumulative errors of the ages, Santayana seeks to lead mankind into a more apprehending state denominated by him the life of reason.
To Herbart the true basis of philosophy was the great mass of phenomena continually moving through the human mind. When thus arranged, the divine hierarchies may be likened to the branches of a great tree.p.
12 p. Introduction. PHILOSOPHY is the science of estimating values. The superiority of any state or substance over another is determined by philosophy.
The 19th Century Evolution of Transcendentalism.
Ralph Waldo Emerson ( - ) is today the most readily recognized propagator and champion of 19th century Transcendentalist thought. Legacy of Transcendentalism: Religion and Philosophy Heaven on Earth: The Legacy of 19th Century Transcendentalism as an Ecumenical Philosophy of Nature.
The transcendentalist movement is generally recognized to be the first major watershed in American literary and intellectual history. Pioneered by Emerson, Thoreau, Orestes Brownson, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott (among others), Transcendentalism provided a springboard for the first distinctly American forays into intellectual culture: religion and religious reform, philosophy.
Kantianism, either the system of thought contained in the writings of the epoch-making 18th-century philosopher Immanuel Kant or those later philosophies that arose from the study of Kant’s writings and drew their inspiration from his principles.
Only the latter is the concern of this article. Britannica Classic: “The Spirit of Romanticism” A discussion of the key events and personalities of the late 18th- and early 19th-century Romantic movement in literature, music, and art.
It contains dialogue based on letters and documents of the period. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.Download